The Interior of the Cathedral of Our Lady, Antwerp
Pieter Neefs the Elder
Signed (centre right on the column): P. Nefs
Inscribed with the date 1625 on a plaque on a column on
Oil on copper, 13⅝ x 16⅞ ins. (34.5 x 43.6 cm)
With Frederick Mont, New York, 1951
With Mortimer Brandt Gallery, New York, 1951, where acquired by the previous owner
Private collection, Switzerland, until 2017
The staffage is painted by Frans Francken the Younger (1581-1642)
A lifelong resident of Antwerp, Pieter Neefs the Elder specialised in painting church interiors. He became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke in 1609-10. Neefs followed the style of the architectural painters Hendrick van Steenwyck the Elder (c. 1550 – 1603) and his son Hendrick van Steenwyck the Younger (c. 1580-1629), with whom he may have studied. His own son and pupil Pieter Neeffs the Younger (1620-1675) perpetuated his speciality in a very similar style.
An example of the artist’s most popular composition, the interior depicted here is based on that of the Cathedral of Our Lady (Onze Lieve Vrouwekerk), in Antwerp. Neefs made many versions of the subject, with variations in the angle of the view, the time of the day, and the interior furnishings, which are often fanciful. Although not strictly accurate as representations of the Cathedral, they nonetheless convey an impression of its interior as it appeared in the seventeenth century, after the new altarpieces and monuments had been installed to replace those destroyed by the iconoclasm of the previous century. There was evidently a strong demand for such views among members of Antwerp’s rich Catholic community and visitors to the city who wished to have a souvenir of the recently restored cathedral.
In this painting, Neefs has taken a view from a slightly elevated vantage point, looking down the length of the nave towards the high altar. The lofty, vaulted structure is flooded with daylight, illuminating with great clarity the intricate beauty of the Gothic architecture and the retreating rows of Baroque altarpieces that embellish the side chapels. Dwarfed by the grand proportions of the building, little groups of church-goers are dotted about the aisles: some engage in animated conversation, while others celebrate mass, or pause for a moment’s quiet contemplation. All strata of society are represented here from the well-to-do to impoverished cripples.
This well preserved example is characteristic of the intimately sized cabinet paintings for which Neefs is renowned. His meticulously detailed technique and the lustrous quality of the paint surface is enhanced by the copper support. Its smooth surface is ideally suited to the precise delineation of the chequered floor and the intricacies of the architectural elements, the outlines of which converge on a vanishing point situated on the altar at the far end of the cathedral. The skilful use of perspective, together with Neefs’s masterful treatment of light and shadow, give a sense of the vast space inside a great Gothic cathedral.
Architectural painting emerged as a specialist genre in Antwerp towards the end of the sixteenth century. Its development was much influenced by the illustrated treatises on architecture and perspective by Hans Vredeman de Vries, which introduced into Northern Europe the rules of linear perspective devised by Italian Renaissance artists and provided a rich pattern book of ideas for generations of artists. The most notable of the Antwerp studios to adopt architectural painting as a specialist activity were those of the Hendrick van Steenwycks, father and son, and the Neefs family of painters. Church interiors offered these artists the opportunity to demonstrate their mastery of linear perspective, a skill that was much admired by connoisseurs of the day. In the inventories of the period, works of this kind are often described as “perspectives”, which gives a clear indication of contemporary attitudes to such works.
Like many other architectural painters of the period, Neefs frequently collaborated with a specialist figure painter: in this case, the staffage is by Frans Francken the Younger, one of the most versatile and accomplished painters of the day. In contrast to the stillness of the architecture, his figures breathe life into the building, while the touches of red, blue and yellow in their clothing add colour to the otherwise almost monochromatic scheme.
The son of the silk merchant and innkeeper Aart Neefs, Pieter Neefs the Elder was most probably born in Antwerp. There is uncertainty about the date of his birth: scholars have traditionally reckoned that he was born about 1578 (i), but, judging from the dates when his own sons were born, a date around 1590 is now thought to be more probable (ii). Owing to the similarity of their styles, it has been assumed that he studied with the Hendrick van Steenwycks, father and son. Neefs made several copies of Steenwyck the Younger’s compositions, including his earliest dated church interior of 1605 (iii). In any event, Neefs was enrolled as a master in the Guild of St. Luke in Antwerp in 1609-10. On 30 April 1612, he married Maria Lauterbeens, who bore him five children between 1614 and 1623, including Lodewijck (born 1617) and Pieter the Younger (born 1620), both of whom became painters and continued working in their father’s manner. Maria Lauterbeens died in 1655 or 1656. Her husband was still alive in February of that year, but he was apparently dead by 1661 when Cornelis de Bie referred to him in the past tense in his Het Gulden cabinet, published that year.
The figures in Neefs’s interiors were frequently painted by other artists, among them Jan Brueghel I, David Teniers II, Sebastian Vrancx, Adriaen van Stalbemt, Bonaventura Peeters I and Frans Francken II and III.
i Biographical information derived from Franz Joseph van den Branden, Geschiedenis der Antwerpsche Schilderschool, Antwerp, 1883, 608-614. The date of 1578 proposed by van den Branden is based on the assumption that Neefs was born shortly after his elder brothers, who were born in 1576 and 1577.
ii Jeroen Giltaij and Guido Jansen, Perspectives: Saenredam and the Architectural Painters of the 17th Century, exh. cat., Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam, 1991, p. 77. Giltaij and Jansen propose a birth date closer to 1590 on the basis of the birth date of Neefs’s eldest son, Lodewijck, who was born in 1617. A birth date around 1590 would mean that Neefs was born to his father’s second wife, Margaretha van Stavoort, whom Aart Neefs married in 1589, his first wife, Margaretha Verspreet having died in 1582.
iii Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Inv. 1183.
Pieter Neefs the Elder
1568/88 - Antwerp - 1656/61
Keep me updated about Pieter Neefs the Elder: